Vietnam pottery history. Vietnam ancient pottery – at the Vietnam History Museum and the Vietnam Fine Arts Museum.
Ceramics is one of the important inventions of our ancestors for thousands of generations, ceramics has been closely linked with the lives of our people. With creativity and deft hands of the potter, pottery Vietnam has become a kind of folk art deep nature.
Vietnam traditional ceramic has been around six, seven thousand years. Pottery appeared in the cultural relics of Hoa Binh, Bac Son culture, culture Halong … Then we see the vestiges of the post-Neolithic Phung Nguyen, Dong Dau stage, stage Go Mun. .. traditional pottery our country has achieved high growth and very rich.
In the legend, the appearance of pottery, porcelain as a mystery, sacred “Ceramic powder substance is located deep in the ground, where the devil sacred keepers. Want to exploit to select a good day. Up to the ground, thanks to the brilliant light of the sun which shed plumb new powder turns into ceramic … “
Actually it was just thrilling legends to increase the key part of the engineering ceramic immemorial. In essence ceramic goods born by skillful hands and creative mind of the craftsman. Vietnam History, Volume 1, page 38 reads: “In the period of Phung Nguyen, stoneware processing techniques have reached peak levels. The ax, chisel mallet … different size scales, are made by grinding, sawing drilling, very complete. These bracelets, earrings, beads … stone can be dressed up, comfort, sophisticated trim. These types of ceramics (pots, bowls, cups, pitcher …) with beautiful shape, strong, healthy, much has been made of the hand. Ceramic outer surface covered with decorative patterns with sharp the lines, the elegantly curved, soft, was coordinated, symmetry and harmony. It is an expression of high aesthetic of Vietnam at that time …. “
So industry Phung Nguyen ceramic period (4,000 years from us) in our country has grown. Humans have known that the turntables devised and created things to coating glaze, add the magic beauty of ceramics.
This was a period of Van Lang. Until Aulac, ceramic industry has developed very strong. Occupation baked clay bricks, tiles … also had this date.
I must say ceramics heyday of the period Ly – Tran (Century XI – XIV). That was in the country prosperous, strong economy, strong military and cultural development, peaceful country, every industry is encouraged to thrive.
Pottery, watch out development scattered throughout the country. In every province there are areas made pottery. Just along the river, we met several pieces of clay, pottery shards lingering remnant. Or we meet are eating ranges kilns smoke spiraling up. The ceramics center in our country, emerged from the Ly – Tran, but so far still flourishing career, that’s Bat Trang (Hanoi), Tho Ha, Phu Lang (Bac Ninh), Huong Canh (Vinh Phuc ), Que Vol (Ha Nam Ninh), Chum Thanh (Thanh Hoa) … Each country ceramic industry kept separate. And every place, pottery items have their own characteristics, creating the diversity and richness of the Vietnam Ceramic technology. If said ceramic center in our country, to say to Bat Trang – Tho Ha – Huong Canh. A distinctive character and clearest of all pottery is developed along the river bank watching. Because it means the road transport, and along the river bank clay is the precious raw materials to produce ceramic.
According to documents introduced History of Tho Ha pottery Hebei Culture Company, and material Read Bat Trang pottery, typing documentation of the Institute of Fine Arts, in 1964, said: At about the Ly – Tran had Jewish students (especially students, the new Thai officials from the Tran) was sent to the Song Dynasty porcelain (China) is: Hua Vinh Kieu, who Bo Bat village (Thanh Hoa), Dao Tri Tien, Tho Ha village people (Hebei), Luu Phong Tu, from the village of Ke Sat (Hai Duong). All three of him, you go porcelain ceramic learned profession. After returning home, he selected three good day up in the Red River herd handing ceremony to the villagers. Technology can be classified as follows: Mr. Kieu about Bo Bat, Tho Ha Tien about Mr. Tu of Phu Lang, and:
– Bo Bat Village tyranny of white ceramic.
– Tho Ha Village tyranny of red pottery.
– Village Phu Lang pottery tyranny of yellow, dark.
Half a year after the study, successfully made, the three he took his wares by hand control, offering king view. King saw the beautiful animal, immediately reward the envoys the four words “Middle loving Quan” and gave him a list of three “Launch art philosophy”. Legend, on this occasion, the villagers in the three places are busy and active priestly family. After rising for three weeks of alcohol, people dancing ovation to commend the job he took on the multitudes. After three of his death, three people were respected third place him “Sensei”, ie “The College”.
Ceramic Bo Bat Ward had left off after the North. Along the Red River, a river beach with white clay, they stopped up kilns there, brothel called Bach Ward, later changed to the Bat Trang ward. And today, we popularly known as Bat Trang.
Pottery Ly – Tran thriving, many in number and in quality quarter. Trending two main types of ceramics, are: (1) Ceramics architectural decoration, usually clay to wood, or enamel unique value. For example, patterned tiles to decorate with silhouette, different sizes. Or tile top cows fitted phoenix, dragon head. Or ceramic decorations shaped pointy shaped leaves beginning to mount on the roof or house riem … (2) As for ceramic household, then all genres. Do dishes, warm, casual, cups, jars, jars, jar …
Pottery of this period, in addition to meaningful use in the country, also exported to many other countries.
Each recorded history, from the beginning of the Ly had many countries to trade, barter with our country such as Indonesia, Siam (Thailand) … Go to the twelfth century, the foreign yacht dock our country more crowded. 1149, to set up port Ly Trieu Van Don, to boats on the trading countries. So far, both sides of the harbor along Van Don remaining pieces of pottery in the Vietnam era many producers. In it, there are both pieces of celadon pottery Ly. So, there is no trace to affirm our ancient pottery have reached high levels there?
In our country, where the people themselves caused by foreign. For example: For celadon ceramics of the Ly dynasty made our country is called “Pottery Song” or “map Song”.
Currently, at the Vietnam History Museum and the Vietnam Fine Arts Museum also save a lot of pottery, porcelain of the era of our country. It was to prove vestiges industry in our country the earliest development, and from ancient pottery in our country has occupied an important position in the economy and culture of the nation. Through this, the more we loved more skilful hands and creative minds of the wealthy potter Vietnam. To understand more about the pottery, we want to introduce something about the type of ceramic pottery kilns and ancient in our country.
Ancient pottery kiln
In fact, the principle of the ancient and modern kilns are not much different. It still relies on the basic principle, made up of 3 parts: elected oven, furnace body, chimney systems. Only thing, ancient pottery kiln was small and simple.
Due to the division of use of each type of furnace, it has its own name for the kilns: oven and stove the population. Products ovens primarily serve the court and communicate with the world. And the furnace People are ordinary items for daily living humans, such as cups, bowls, kettles, ovens, pots, jars, jars … As usual, the product in the oven is always first higher technical assistance in civil oven.
According to Do Van Ninh documents (Institute of Archaeology) on the excavation of pottery kilns in Thap (Thuan Thanh) showed that this ceramic kilns Zone 4 oven with the oven-like structure similar to the same. The entire furnace was apparently shaped melon, between wide aneurysm, truncated both ends. The size measured in an oven with the surface and form larger three other furnaces, shows: length 3.35 meters, width near 2 meters. Thus, the size of a compact furnace that time.
Notably is the kilns, most fuel burning bamboo, wood; Unused fuel coal in this period. Through this, it demonstrates the technical standards of the time and baked for self- conscious raw materials available locally very high.
Others, found that the oven is simple structure and creativity; cover oven ancient craftsmen using clay which only covered but not used to fire brick oven and relatives to vote on the oven. Meanwhile, in China, Tang Dynasty ceramic furnace is not very big (usually 3 meters long, 2 meters wide), so that has to be used to fire bricks to build and build chimney fire door.
According to archaeological documentation of Tran Dinh Luyen 1975 (Bac Ninh Department of Culture) tells us more about the area of ceramic kilns, tile of the land in East Yen, Bac Ninh, located on the waterfront at District Five Odd. Other structure of the oven with the oven type Thap. That circular kilns, 1.2 meters in diameter, wall oven with each piece of crockery embankment small barb, 1 meter thick, Grower wall, above shrink gradually style arches. Funnel gourd shaped oven, wall oven up closely, also by land with approximately 0.2 meters thickness.
Through research, pottery kiln in Dong Yen is somewhat more advanced in Thap. But any progress along the kilns through the ages, we see, until the early twentieth century, the new and improved furnace a big step. It was transformed from frog into boiling furnace furnace module form several large pots. Range modality shift to modular wooden bamboo charcoal and oil heaters. These are far-reaching and confirming the immortal vitality of pottery industry
Today, with modern style pottery kiln, it has been designed for continuous round-style oven. It is a form of advanced brick kilns. It is only once the furnace group, and the fire kept burning oven passed from elected oven to elect the other furnace, the fire was kept burning until the day vulnerabilities. These improvements such intelligence, is the source from the primitive pottery kiln Oldtimer …
Glaze the Ly – Tran
Ly – Tran is the prosperity of the ceramic industry. Therefore, ceramic Ly – Tran rich is inevitable.
Before this period, a number of ceramic pottery in the form of wood, which is not sheathed enamelled coat a layer of ceramic, ceramic coat sewn government did not ple, but Tho Ha and Phu Lang ceramics are used to coat. Ceramic coat is a synthesis between soil solution and vegetarians, with vegetarian recipes 1 4 land. Land is pottery, crushed, screened carefully. There is a kind of stone vegetarian and local rust right. Lent must also crushed, screened carefully. There are two kinds of land and vegetarian then, mixed, mixed with water, dissolved into a solution. All the pottery is baked before being dipped into this solution, creating a ceramic mantle. If so bring baked up, is beautiful and ceramics. Or, in addition, we want enamelled enamelled ceramic class shirt.
Be familiar with the typical three types of ceramic Ly – Tran. That is celadon pottery, ceramics brown, blue and white ceramics.
Celadon pottery: Once you have a good ceramic bones, one thick coating a blue enamel cool, like glass in balls, hence called celadon pottery. Celadon pottery at us very valuable, are popular at home and abroad. People often compare us with celadon ceramics of the Song Dynasty Longquan pottery of China.
Ly Dynasty celadon pottery often bone-thin ceramic bars. Go to the Tran dynasty, the ceramic solid bone, thicker. Decorations on ceramics, mostly stylized lotus image. There’s also a number of other topics, such as seminars and decorative flower pots wires running around. There are three forms of decoration on pottery: carved flowers, flower prints and floral cover. Imprinted or embossed flowers, use the mold, while others rely on knife flower tip or a bone head painted ceramic bamboo stick when ground was soft. Embedded carving flowers and bring yeast, yeast stagnate and create photo beautiful decorations. Besides the celadon pottery and exquisite that picky, craftsmen also produce a mass of pottery, sometimes for carpentry, sometimes thin enamel coating yellow, brown, or skin color that eel dull and less glossy. This type of pottery for common use and when baked, it was baked in piles high.
Ly dynasty, pottery hardly write letters. Go to the Tran dynasty, often seen as ham kinds of ceramics with brown inscription “Thien Truong government institutions.”
Brown ceramic flower: It’s kind of ceramic board, to design, certainly, remains thick and coarse pottery. Outside enamel coated ivory or light yellow. Ceramic brown flowers appear at the end of the first Ly Tran.
Decorative form of flower pattern on brown ceramic flower wire usually runs around the mouth rim pottery. In particular, most of the ceramic ribs with brown flowers embossed floral workshop, storks, four-legged animal, fish or shrimp … very lively. The dragon-shaped flowers decorated in brown pottery Ly Tran dynasty with another. It is healthy fat dragon himself, meandering comfortable, unlike the Ly dragon slender body and meandering cramped.
Blue and white ceramics: the name of a white enamelled ceramic septic painted blue decoration.
For a beautiful glaze colors, it is necessary to have good core ceramic bone. Watch out, usually ceramic bone is sandy clay. If pottery, to challenge a number of other impurities such as straw, rice husks or leaves weeds to increase links.
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